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Mammography is x-rays of the breasts so as to enable one to detect early breast cancer
The radiation effect on the breasts decreases exponentially after 35 years of age. The only precaution to be taken is that the patient should be sure that she is not pregnant.
With newer equipment very little discomfort is felt by the patient. The patient should preferably come after the period is over, as the likelihood of pain will be the least. However there will be no changes in the findings on mammography during any stage of the menstrual cycle.
Sonomammography is sonography of the breasts. It is usually done as a complementary procedure to mammography. It helps in distinguishing a cystic mass from a solid mass. Cysts are usually benign. Mammography is required as the earliest of cancers are seen only on this modality.
It is not possible to tell 100% whether a mass is benign tor malignant on either mammography or sonography. To be 100% sure, a biopsy is required. Sonography and mammography, both together are 95% accurate in diagnosing a lesion.
The chances are 5-15% if it is a first degree relative particularly on the maternal side. The person is at a high risk & should start doing mammography 10-15 years earlier than the age at which the relative got breast cancer.
Breast cancer usually presents itself as a lump. Therefore a patient should regularly do a monthly self-breast examination particularly after the period is over. Sometimes there might be a bloody nipple discharge. Occasionally in 10% of the patients, is there is associated pain.
For the diagnosis of a broad range of pathologic conditions in all parts of the body more specifically for the brain (including cancer, stroke), spine and musculoskeletal disorders. In addition, MRI of the heart, aorta, coronary arteries and blood vessels is a fast, non-invasive tool for diagnosing heart problems. Physicians can examine the size and thickness of the chambers of the heart and determine the extent of damage caused by a heart attack or progressive heart disease. As an alternative to traditional X-Ray mammography in the early diagnosis of breast cancer. Because no radiation exposure is involved. For examination of the male and female reproductive systems, pelvis and hips and the bladder. Specialized MRI scans.
Diffusion MRI diagnoses an ischemic stroke within 5-10 minutes of the onset of stroke symptoms. Magnetic Resonance Angiography is used to generate pictures of the arteries in order to evaluate them for stenosis (abnormal narrowing) or aneurysms (vessel wall dilatations, at risk of rupture). Magnetic resonance venography is a similar procedure that is used to image veins. Magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) allows one to study a particular region within an organism or sample and provides a wealth of chemical information about that region.
The conventional MRI unit is a closed cylindrical magnet in which the patient must lie totally still for several seconds at a time.
The patient is placed on a sliding table and positioned comfortably. Then the radiologist and technologist leave the room and the individual MRI sequences are performed. The patient is able to communicate with the radiologist or technologist at any time using an intercom. Also we allow a friend or, if a child is being examined, a parent to stay in the room.
Depending on how many images are needed, the exam will generally take 25 to 45 minutes, although a very detailed study may take longer.
Typically an MRI examination consists of two to six imaging sequences, each lasting two to 15 minutes. You will be asked not to move during the actual imaging process, but between sequences some movement is allowed. Patients are generally required to remain still for only a few seconds to a few minutes at a time.
Depending on the part of the body being examined, a contrast material (usually gadolinium) may be used to enhance the visibility of certain tissues or blood vessels. A small needle connected to an intravenous line is placed in an arm or hand vein.
When the exam is over the patient is asked to wait until the images are examined to determine if more images are needed. A radiologist will analyze the images and prepare a report with his or her interpretation.
MRI causes no pain. Some patients can find it uncomfortable to remain still during the examination.
Others experience a sense of being "closed in".
If a contrast injection is needed, there may be discomfort at the injection site and you may have a cool sensation at the site during the injection.
Most bothersome to many patients are the loud tapping or knocking noises heard at certain phases of imaging. Ear plugs are provided which help. For noise-reducing Avanto has a AudioComfort technology that slashes decibel levels up to 97%.
A radiologist, experienced in MRI and other radiology examinations, will analyze the images and prepare a report. This will be done on the same or following day. We can also provide a permanent record on a CD at a nominal additional cost. Please do inform us in advance if you need one.
Images of the soft-tissue structures of the body are clearer and more detailed than with other imaging methods.
MRI can help physicians evaluate the function as well.
MRI contrast material is less likely to produce an allergic reaction than the iodine-based materials used for conventional x-rays and CT scanning.
MRI provides a fast, noninvasive alternative to x-ray angiography for diagnosing problems of the heart and cardiovascular system.
Exposure to radiation is avoided.
MRI is generally avoided in the first 12 weeks of pregnancy. Doctors usually use other methods of imaging, such as ultrasound, on pregnant women unless there is a strong medical reason to use MRI.
Projectiles: As a result of the very high strength of the magnetic field needed to produce scans (frequently up to 60,000 times the earth's own magnetic field effects), missile-effect accidents, where ferromagnetic objects are attracted to the center of the magnet, have resulted in injury It is for this reason that ferrous objects and devices are prohibited in proximity to the MRI scanner. Ferromagnetic foreign bodies (e.g. shell fragments), or metallic implants (e.g. surgical prostheses, aneurysm clips) are also potential risks, and safety aspects need to be considered on an individual basis. Interaction of the magnetic and radiofrequency fields with such objects can lead to trauma due to movement of the object in the magnetic field.
Gadolinium based contrast media not to be used in patients of Chronic renal failure as it causes nephogenic fibrosis.
Thermal injury from radio-frequency induction heating of the object, Failure of an implanted device.
There’s no special preparation necessary for the MRI examination. Unless the person at the booking counter specifically requests that you not eat or drink anything before the exam, there are no food or drink restrictions. Continue to take any medication prescribed by your doctor unless otherwise directed.
You won’t be allowed to wear anything metallic during the MRI examination, so it would be best to leave watches, jewelry or anything made from metal at home. Even some cosmetics contain small amounts of metals, so it is best to not wear make-up. There is a safe place to lock up valuables if you can’t leave them at home.
In order to prevent metallic objects from being attracted by the powerful magnet of the MR system, you will be given scrubs to change into for your examination. Items that need to be removed by patients before entering the MR system room include:
Examples of items or things that may create a health hazard or other problem during an MRI exam include:
Check with the MRI technologist or the Radiologist if you have questions or concerns about any implanted object or health condition that could impact the MRI procedure. This is particularly important if you have undergone surgery involving the brain, ear, eye, heart, or blood vessels.
Though it involves X-Ray radiations, there are no dangers in practice. Only for pregnant women, it should be done after weighing all the risks of exposing their fetus to radiations and benefits (like any other CT investigation). Dangers of contrast medium
A contrast is an iodinated compound injected intravenously (peripherally) to opacify the vessels and enhance the ability of CT scans to pick up abnormalities Only the very safest contrast (non-ionic) is used for all the patients in our centre. This gives better compliance with patients, as compared to ionic contrast, which is cheaper but, gives more adverse reactions.
During the CT scan, you lie on a narrow table that slides through the opening of a large device called the gantry. The table can be raised, lowered or tilted. Straps and pillows may help you stay in position. During a CT scan of the head, the table may be fitted with a special cradle that holds your head still.
As the X-Ray tube rotates around your body, the table slowly moves through the gantry. While the table is moving, you may need to hold your breath to avoid blurring the images. You may hear clicking and whirring noises. Each rotation yields several images of thin slices of your body.
During this time, a technologist in a shielded room supervises the CT scan and monitors the images as they appear on the computer screen. The technologist can see and hear you, and you can communicate via intercom.
If an infant or small child is having the CT scan, you may be allowed to stay with your child during the test. If so, you may be asked to wear a lead apron to shield you from X-ray exposure.
CT scans are painless. If your exam involves use of an intravenous contrast medium, you may feel a brief sensation of heat or experience a metallic taste in your mouth. If you receive contrast medium through an enema-to help highlight your lower gastrointestinal region-you may feel a sense of fullness or cramping.
After the exam, you can return to your normal routine. If you were given a contrast medium, your doctor or the radiography staff may give you special instructions. These likely include drinking lots of fluids to help remove the medium from your body.
Sonography, or ultrasound, utilizes high frequency sound waves (not x-rays) to obtain diagnostic images. Ultrasound imaging is used to evaluate many parts of the body, including the abdomen, blood vessels, fetus of pregnant women, superficial body structures, and newborn brain to name only a few.
It is a sonography done for better visualisation of uterus & ovaries. A high-resolution endovaginal probe is inserted into the vagina for this examination. It is not painful. It is done as a routine at our centre as it is observed that at times, even fairly prominent lesions can be missed if only trans-abdominal sonography is performed. It does not require a full bladder.
Expected date of delivery and weight estimation are just estimates based on statistical data of the baby size. It is not 100% accurate but, predicts the dating and weight estimation up to +/- 10%.
There is no special preparation required for the scan. All it involves is the lying on a table, breathing normally. No intravenous injections or oral medication. The intensity of radiation is extremely low. The whole procedure takes about 10 minutes.
The average amount of exposure to an X-ray is very low and is well within the acceptable amount recommended.
The X-ray technician should be informed and he should cover the lower abdomen with a lead apron. In case one's pregnancy status is unknown, it is still a good idea to ask for protective cover.
No, at Star Imaging, it is pleasantly flavored.
An upper G.I. series takes 30 minutes. A full study takes 3-4 hours
No, X-rays are the most cost-effective means of diagnosis, particularly when diseases of chest, bones & joints are concerned.
Coronary angiogram is an invasive procedure, where a tube will be inserted inside your body through a puncture in your leg artery or arm artery. Serial X-ray pictures are taken after injecting iodine containing medicine into your heart vessels. This procedure is painful and requires admission.
Yes, CT Coronary Angiogram is the New gold standard method for Coronary Artery Disease to diagnose without pain and hospitalization.
Surely, Yes, CAD Coronary Angiogram has 99% negative predictive value. Also, it has a very high specificity about the type of atherosclerotic plaques (deposits) and can differentiate them into calcified, soft and mixed types, which is not possible with catheter angiogram.
If you have any of these under mentioned risk factors, you need a CT Coronary Angiogram:-
As explained earlier CT Coronary Angio is a totally non-invasive (painless) procedure. You will be taken to the CT scan room, after routine ECG and blood tests to exclude kidney problems. You may lie flat on the CT table and an intravenous line will be inserted in to one of your arms veins. If you chest is hairy we need to shave over a little area of the chest, to fix the ECG leads. You will be given a tablet to control your heart rate, which will be prescribed by our cardiologist after taking your ECG or Echocardiography. You will be instructed to hold breathe during scan. Your scan is done by CT equipment along with ECG gating. During the scan non-ionic contrast medicine will be injected through the arm vein, which may give you a slight warm sensation.
The actual scan takes less than 5 seconds. But, you need to be prepared for the scan which takes 30 minutes to 1 hour. So, your stay in Star Imaging & Path Lab can range from 1-2 hours.
Like conventional angiogram CT Coronary angiogram also uses X-ray radiation. But, the levels of radiation used are minimal below any harmful levels. Further, the latest Optima 500 Slice Scanner at Star Imaging & Path Lab has unique prospective cardiac scan module which reduces the radiation exposure to less than 50% to 80% in comparison to other equipments.
Your doctor will tell you how to prepare for the cardiac CT scan. People usually are asked to avoid drinks that contain caffeine before the test. Normally, you're allowed to drink water, but you're asked not to eat for 4 hours before the scan.
If you take medicine for diabetes, talk with your doctor about whether you'll need to change how you take it on the day of your cardiac CT scan.
Tell your doctor whether you:
A technician will ask you to remove your clothes above the waist and wear a hospital gown. You also will be asked to remove any jewelry from around your neck or chest.
Taking pictures of the heart can be hard because the heart is always beating (in motion). A slower heart rate will help produce better quality pictures.
If you don't have asthma, COPD (chronic obstructive pulmonary disease), or heart failure, your doctor may give you a medicine called a beta blocker to help slow your heart rate. The medicine will be given by mouth or injected into a vein.
A stress test or treadmill test or exercise records the heart's electrical activity (rate and rhythm) during exercise
After the test patient will be asked to sit or lie down till heart and blood pressure recovers to baseline. The stress test doctor will then evaluate the data collected through the test and make the necessary recommendations
The total time required for the test will be about 30 minutes.
There is very little risk in taking the test in healthy person - no more than if a person walks fats or jogs up a big hill. During the test the cardiologist and a technician are always present.
To find out:
Prior appointment will save considerable time on the day of test.
The X-Ray technician should be informed and he should cover the lower abdomen with a lead apron. In case one's pregnancy status is unknown, it is still a good idea to ask for protective cover.
An upper G.I. series takes 30 minutes. A full study takes 3-4 hours.
No, X-rays are the most cost-effective means of diagnosis, particularly when diseases of chest, bones & joints are concerned.
The average amount of exposure to an X-Ray is very low and is well within the acceptable amount recommended.
Yes, with prior notice, we send technicians for home visits within the vicinity of our 3 centres.
Yes, for every patient, fresh blood collection device is used which is then disposed with due precautions.
90% of the reports can be given on the same day in the evening and, certain specialized investigations can be done in a day or two.
Yes, fasting is required for most of the routine hematology and biochemical investigations unless otherwise specified by the doctor.